The Soviet Mi-8 Hip was the greatest Mil helicopter ever built. Over 10,000 of many different variants were produced.
The Mi-8 has been used as an assault helicopter, equipped as executive transports, and as command posts. The primary user of the Mi-8 was the Soviet military.
The Ka-32 Helix was an upgraded anti-submarine helicopter that first appeared in 1982.
The Ka-8 "flying motorcycle" was an ultralight helicopter that used a motorcycle engine and coaxial rotors. It could not rise off the ground but formed the basis for the Ka-10.
The Ka-25 Hormone was an anti-submarine helicopter with "dipping sonar" that could be lowered into the water while the helicopter was hovering.
The Ka-10 Hat was used by the Soviet Navy aboard icebreaking ships.
The Ka-50 Werewolf attack helicopter was the first Kamov helicopter developed for this role.
Soviet and Russian HelicoptersThe Soviet Union got a relatively late start at developing helicopter technology. After the United States, the Soviet Union has become the biggest user of helicopters in military and civilian roles and the biggest exporter of helicopters to other countries. During the Cold War, NATO gave Soviet helicopters names beginning with the letter "H," such as Hip, Hook, Hind and Horse, although several different design bureaus developed them.
As in other countries, early Soviet work on rotary flight centered upon the autogyro. The first Soviet rotary-wing aircraft to fly was the KaSkr-1. This craft was designed by Nikolai I. Kamov, who would later become a primary Soviet helicopter designer, and by Nikolai Skrzhinsky. The KaSkr-1 was constructed in 1929, and over the next decade, a number of different Soviet autogyro craft were developed.
Soviet designers were greatly impressed with the German Fa-61 helicopter developed in the late 1930s and copied the craft's general layout. Designer Ivan Bratukhin began work on the 2 MG Omega helicopter in July 1940 and completed work on it by June 1941, just after the Germans had invaded the Soviet Union. Like the Fa-61, the 2 MG Omega had two rotors mounted to either side of a main fuselage on outriggers. Unlike the Fa-61, however, each rotor had its own engine mounted underneath. Work had to be suspended on the craft while Moscow's entire aviation industry was forced to move 1,000 miles to the east, away from the advancing German Army. Although work was resumed and the 2 MG Omega eventually flew, it suffered severe vibration problems and could not fly for long or it would shake itself apart in midair.
Bratukhin and Boris N. Yuriev developed other experimental helicopters over the next several years but were severely hindered by the Soviet need to build fighter and ground-attack aircraft. Bratukhin's reliance on the side-by-side rotors also lost support from the Soviet Air Force, because this design was no longer in favor among other designers (such as Igor Sikorsky in the United States and Anton Flettner in Germany) and was too large. After the war ended, three other designers emerged to lead Soviet helicopter development.
Aleksandr Sergeyevich Yakovlev was born in Moscow in 1906. By the early 1930s, while designing airplanes, Yakovlev became a favorite designer of Soviet dictator Josef Stalin. During the war, he designed various fighter planes. In 1944, he began developing a helicopter that did not fly until 1947. He later built two other helicopters, including the Yak-24 Horse, which first flew in July 1952 and was a tandem rotor design like the American Piasecki H-21 "Flying Banana." The Horse was the largest helicopter in the world at the time. But Yakovlev soon returned to designing airplanes.
Nikolai Ilyich Kamov was born in 1902 in Irkutsk, Siberia. By 1929, he had helped build the first Soviet autogyro and soon designed several more. In 1945, he began designing an ultralight helicopter designated the Ka-8 "flying motorcycle" because it used a motorcycle engine. It had coaxial rotors, mounted one on top of the other and rotating in opposite directions. The Ka-8 did not have enough power to lift off the ground but soon formed the basis for the slightly larger Ka-10 Hat, which was used by the Soviet Navy aboard icebreaking ships. All of Kamov's helicopters, except for one, used this same configuration with one rotor mounted atop the other and were popular with the Soviet Navy, primarily because they took up less space on a ship than a more conventional design.
By the late 1960s, Kamov had developed the Ka-25 Hormone for anti-submarine use. The Ka-25 was short and blocky, looking somewhat like a lumpy box with windows and rotors. It had two engines and two counter-rotating three-bladed rotors. The Ka-25 was equipped with a large radar, a weapons bay, a "dipping sonar" that could be lowered into the water while the helicopter was hovering, and sonobuoys, which were small floating sonar devices that could be dropped into the water and relayed their data to the helicopter by radio.
Kamov died in 1973, but his design bureau continued producing helicopters. The Ka-32 Helix, which first appeared in 1982, was an upgraded anti-submarine helicopter and soon replaced the Ka-25 in service. During the mid 1990s, Kamov built the Ka-50 Werewolf attack helicopter, which was the first Kamov helicopter developed for this role. The Ka-50 has only one crewman, which some critics have claimed is not enough to handle the complex missions of flying the aircraft and controlling the weapons.
While Kamov designed numerous successful helicopters, the most important Soviet helicopter designer was Mikhail Leontevich Mil, who was as crucial to the development of Soviet helicopter aviation as Sikorsky was to the United States. Mil was born in Irkutsk in 1909. In the late 1930s, he worked as Kamov's deputy designer. In 1947, he was assigned as the Chief Designer of a new experimental design bureau for helicopters. He was told to develop a three-seat communications helicopter for carrying information between army units. He developed the GM-1, which beat one of Yakovlev's designs and was later redesignated the Mi-1. The Mi-1 first flew in late 1948. It was extremely successful and was the first Soviet helicopter to enter large-scale production. In 1951, Mil started work on the Mi-4 Hound, which surpassed the Mi-1 in performance and success.
The greatest Mil helicopter ever built was the Mi-8 Hip. The first Mi-8 flew in 1961, and the helicopter entered production in late 1965. Over 10,000 Mi-8s of many different variants were produced. The Mi-8 was nearly as popular as the American Bell UH-1 Huey (of which 15,000 were produced) and was widely exported. The Mi-8 had two engines and a five-blade main rotor. Its cabin had a rear door that dropped down to allow people or equipment to be unloaded. It was a big helicopter, capable of carrying up to 36 fully armed troops.
Mi-8s have been armed with rocket launchers and anti-tank guided missiles. They have been equipped as executive transports and as command posts. They have also been fitted as electronic warfare helicopters with equipment and antennas for jamming enemy radars and radios. The primary user of the Mi-8 was the Soviet military, and when the Soviet Union collapsed in the late 1980s, Mil's production of the Mi-8 dropped from hundreds a year to a few dozen a year, nearly all for export.
Mil also developed the Mi-24 Hind assault helicopter, which shared some features with the Mi-8, but was intended to carry a substantial weapons load. It first flew in 1970. The Mi-24 was never a totally satisfactory aircraft, and by the late 1980s, in large part due to its experience in Afghanistan and the success of the American AH-64 Apache, Mil began developing the two-seat Mi-28 Havoc attack helicopter to compete with the single-seat Ka-50. The Russian government chose to build both aircraft in small numbers, hoping for large orders from foreign countries.
In addition to these workhorse helicopters, Mil also produced some true monster helicopters such as the Mi-6 Hook and the Mi-10 Harke. The Mi-6, unveiled in November 1957, had already been flying in secret for several months and was the largest helicopter in the world. It had already set several unofficial records for lifting heavy weights. The Mi-6 had a huge, five-bladed main rotor, two 5,500-shaft-horsepower (4,100-kilowatt) turbine engines, a large fuselage, and wings that provided lift in forward flight. In 1962, a Hook lifted 44,350 pounds (20,117 kilograms)—more than twice as much as its nearest American competitor, the Sikorsky CH-54 Tahre. The Mi-6 was also impressively fast. The Soviet Air Force used it to transport artillery and their crews and ammunition to forward bases, and the helicopter was exported to Egypt, North Vietnam, and Bulgaria.
The Mi-10 Harke first flew in 1960 and used the same engine, transmission, hydraulics, and rotor system as the Mi-6. The main difference was the Mi-10's fuselage, which was smaller and mounted on tall landing gear, allowing it to carry large loads, such as unfueled intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), underneath the fuselage. In 1965, a specially modified Mi-10 lifted a payload of 55,347 pounds (25,105 kilograms) to an altitude of 9, 317 feet (2,840 meters), setting a new record.
Neither the Mi-6 nor the Mi-10 were ideal helicopters, and Mil eventually developed the Mi-26 Halo. The Halo can transport more than 85 fully equipped combat troops and has a substantial lifting capability. The Mi-26 is still flying today, although it is no longer in production.
The Soviets have used helicopters in the skycrane role extensively. This role has been dictated by the vast size of the Soviet Union—many major construction projects were hundreds of miles from the nearest town. Mi-6 and Mi-10 helicopters were used to support oil drilling facilities, construction work, and military outposts in remote areas. Although the Russians still use helicopters as skycranes, this activity is much diminished.
The collapse of the Soviet Union has resulted in a dramatic decrease in the production of Russian helicopters and their export around the world, but thousands remain in service and Russian firms continue to try to find export markets for civilian and military helicopters.
Dwayne A. Day
Sources and Further Reading:
Butowski, Peter. "Forever Hip." Combat Aircraft 3 (2) 120-129.
Everett-Heath, John. Soviet Helicopters. London: Jane's Publishing Company, 1983.
Gordon, Yefim, and Komissarov, Dimitriy. "Mil Mi-24 ‘Hind.'" World Airpower Journal 37 (Summer 1999) 42-89.
Stapfer, Hans-Heiri. Mi-24 Hind in Action. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1988.